Concept and Care Policy in Thailand to Analysis on Shifting Paradigm from Institutional Care System to Alternative Care System

Abstract:  Thailand has become a member of the Convention on the Rights of the Child-CRC, which is the United Nations’ instrument on International Human Rights Based on human rights. It adheres to the principle of non-discrimination for the best interests of the child, and also supports and protects the rights of the child in four areas: the right to survival, the right to protection, the right to development and the right to participation. Child care in a form of family-based care is focusing on preventing children from being separated from their families. This concept is not prevalent for Thai government and private care institutions when compared to alternative care system in developed countries. Therefore, the main aim of this article is to analyze the reasons and factors leading to children being placed in the institutional care system as well as challenges that arise, and current measures taken. Besides, reviews of legal frameworks, policies, forms, mechanisms, and standards for alternative care in order to increase quality and efficiency of Thailand’s alternative care system will be presented in the article. These will be beneficial to Thai government and non-government agencies involved in child and youth affairs to realize challenges of implementing alternative care in terms of both laws and policies. Moreover, the problem of insufficient resources for good management will be discussed. All of the suggestions proposed in this article can be used for further development of the alternative care system for the best interests of the children in Thailand.

      Keywords: Institutional Care System, Concept, Alternative Care Policy

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